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Binding affinity is actualized not only by host—guest interactions, but also by solvent effects that can play a dominant, steric role which drives non-covalent binding in solution.

Radioligands are radioisotope labeled compounds used in vivo as tracers in PET studies and for in vitro binding studies.

The interaction of most ligands with their binding sites can be characterized in terms of a binding affinity. In general, high-affinity ligand binding results from greater intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor while low-affinity ligand binding involves less intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor.

In general, high-affinity binding results in a higher degree of occupancy for the ligand at its receptor binding site than is the case for low-affinity binding; the residence time lifetime of the receptor-ligand complex does not correlate.

High-affinity binding of ligands to receptors is often physiologically important when some of the binding energy can be used to cause a conformational change in the receptor, resulting in altered behavior of an associated ion channel or enzyme.

A ligand that can bind to a receptor, alter the function of the receptor, and trigger a physiological response is called an agonist for that receptor.

Agonist binding to a receptor can be characterized both in terms of how much physiological response can be triggered and in terms of the concentration of the agonist that is required to produce the physiological response.

High-affinity ligand binding implies that a relatively low concentration of a ligand is adequate to maximally occupy a ligand-binding site and trigger a physiological response.

The lower the K i concentration is, the more likely there will be a chemical reaction between the pending ion and the receptive antigen.

Low-affinity binding high K i level implies that a relatively high concentration of a ligand is required before the binding site is maximally occupied and the maximum physiological response to the ligand is achieved.

In the example shown to the right, two different ligands bind to the same receptor binding site. Only one of the agonists shown can maximally stimulate the receptor and, thus, can be defined as a full agonist.

An agonist that can only partially activate the physiological response is called a partial agonist. Ligands that bind to a receptor but fail to activate the physiological response are receptor antagonists.

In the example shown to the left, ligand-binding curves are shown for two ligands with different binding affinities. Ligand binding is often characterized in terms of the concentration of ligand at which half of the receptor binding sites are occupied, known as the IC 50 , which is related to but different from the dissociation constant.

The ligand illustrated by the red curve has a higher binding affinity and smaller K d than the ligand illustrated by the green curve.

If these two ligands were present at the same time, more of the higher-affinity ligand would be bound to the available receptor binding sites.

This is how carbon monoxide can compete with oxygen in binding to hemoglobin, resulting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

Binding affinity is most commonly determined using a radiolabeled ligand, known as a tagged ligand. Homologous competitive binding experiments involve binding competition between a tagged ligand and an untagged ligand.

MP-SPR also enables measurements in high saline dissociation buffers thanks to a unique optical setup. Microscale Thermophoresis MST , an immobilization-free method [5] was developed.

For the use of statistical mechanics in a quantitative study of the ligand-receptor binding affinity, see the comprehensive article [7] on the configurational partition function.

Binding affinity data alone does not determine the overall potency of a drug. Potency is a result of the complex interplay of both the binding affinity and the ligand efficacy.

Ligand efficacy refers to the ability of the ligand to produce a biological response upon binding to the target receptor and the quantitative magnitude of this response.

This response may be as an agonist , antagonist , or inverse agonist , depending on the physiological response produced. Selective ligands have a tendency to bind to very limited kinds of receptor, whereas non-selective ligands bind to several types of receptors.

This plays an important role in pharmacology , where drugs that are non-selective tend to have more adverse effects , because they bind to several other receptors in addition to the one generating the desired effect.

Bivalent ligands consist of two drug-like molecules pharmacophores or ligands connected by an inert linker. There are various kinds of bivalent ligands and are often classified based on what the pharmacophores target.

Homobivalent ligands target two of the same receptor types. Heterobivalent ligands target two different receptor types. In scientific research, bivalent ligands have been used to study receptor dimers and to investigate their properties.

This class of ligands was pioneered by Philip S. Portoghese and coworkers while studying the opioid receptor system. Many believe this limits their applicability in clinical settings.

A privileged scaffold [28] is a molecular framework or chemical moiety that is statistically recurrent among known drugs or among a specific array of biologically active compounds.

These privileged elements [29] can be used as a basis for designing new active biological compounds or compound libraries. Main methods to study protein—ligand interactions are principal hydrodynamic and calorimetric techniques, and principal spectroscopic and structural methods such as.

The dramatically increased computing power of supercomputers and personal computers has made it possible to study protein—ligand interactions also by means of computational chemistry.

For example, a worldwide grid of well over a million ordinary PCs was harnessed for cancer research in the project grid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about ligands in biochemistry. For ligands in inorganic chemistry, see Ligand.

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